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《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》
发布时间:2019-12-02 浏览次数: 来源:联合国教科文组织 字体:


联合国教科文组织第40届大会表决通过《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》


2019年11月14日,《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》草案在联合国教科文组织第40届大会表决通过。《全球公约》将成为第一个具有法律约束力的联合国高等教育条约。

《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》将是联合国首个全球范围内的高等教育公约,并将成为教科文组织现有的五个承认高等教育相关资历区域公约的补充。

《全球公约》以现有区域公约为基础,将创造一个公平、透明和非歧视地承认高等教育相关资历的框架。《全球公约》的新颖之处在于它为区域间的学生流动提供了便利,并确立了优化资历承认实践的普遍原则。

《公约》向那些满足特定条件且愿意签署的国家开放。


这项未来《公约》的惠益是什么?它将如何帮助广大学生?

如今,超过400万学生在本国以外的国家学习。据估计,到2020年,将有大约800万学生在国外学习。《全球公约》旨在促进区域之间的学生流动。那些寻求在其本国以外的地区获得学历认证的人将是这份公约的主要受益者,无论其目的是接受高等教育还是继续深造。

例如,一个想要在其他地区攻读大学的学生将更容易使他(她)的高中学历得到认可。希望在其他国家完成他(她)正在攻读的另一国学位的学生也将获益。

《全球公约》还将为各国有关部门间的跨境和跨区域合作提供平台,以便探索承认高等教育资历更好的工具和做法。


教科文组织具体扮演什么角色?

教科文组织是探讨承认高等教育资历和促进学生流动问题的全球平台。作为唯一负责高等教育的联合国机构,教科文组织将借助这份新《公约》在改革高等教育战略和政策方面加强对各缔约国的技术支持,促进优质高等教育机会公平,增强学生流动性和政府部门责任意识。

教科文组织将成为“政府间缔约国大会”的秘书处,该机构为保障和监督《公约》执行而设立,每两年举行一次会议,并将向那些愿意签署并承担《公约》规定义务的国家(“缔约国”)提供指导(包括意见建议、方针路线和良好做法的分享)。


《公约》将如何为更具包容性的高等教育体系做出贡献?

对于那些决定签署《公约》的国家,《全球公约》将是防止人才外流的有力工具,因为这些国家将致力于建立各种机制,使那些在国外获得的学位或学历更容易在本国得到承认。

该公约还将帮助移民在新的定居国获得高等教育,因为它规定缔约国必须设立相关机制,使难民能更加便捷地得到教育资历承认,即使他们无法提供能够证明自己资历的文件。


制定新的《全球公约》的过程是什么?

《全球公约》的设想很久之前就被提上了教科文组织的议事日程。一项可行性研究指出,全球范围内对改善外国教育资历认可的需求高涨,迫切需要制定一项《全球公约》来回应这一需求。这项研究结束后,正式起草程序于2011年开始了。为此,教科文组织于2016年成立了起草委员会,委员会由来自世界各个地区的专家组成,并于2017年6月完成了初稿。

随后,草案于2017年至2018年在会员国间传阅以征求意见,教科文组织在2018年12月和2019年3月举行的两次政府间会议上提交了修订过的草案以供讨论。

在3月的会议上,来自约150个会员国的260多名技术和法律专家批准了该草案。该草案提交到2019年11月的教科文组织大会第40届会议并表决通过。


2019 40th Session of the UNESCO General Conference adopted the Global Convention on the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications


On 14 November 2019, UNESCO Member States reviewed and adopted the Global Convention on the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications at the 40th Session of the UNESCO General Conference held from 12-27 November 2019. UNESCO has served as a global platform for discussion on the recognition of higher education qualifications and the promotion of academic mobility.


The global convention was overwhelming endorsed at the Higher Education Ministerial Meeting held on 13th November 2019. The key themes discussed at the Ministerial meeting include; inclusion, equity and access issues in higher education, reform of the higher education systems, national qualifications framework, governance of higher education, mobility and qualification recognition issues in higher education, science technology and innovation, ICT in higher education, accreditation issues, and quality assurance in higher education. The key pillars of the global convention on recognition of qualifications in higher education was discussed at the Ministerial Meeting.


The Global Convention is the first United Nations treaty on higher education with a global scope. Given its adoption, the Global Convention will be open to ratification by interested UNESCO Member States. The global convention was built on the existing foundation and framework on the five existing regional conventions on academic recognition and mobility. The Asia-Pacific Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education, known as the 1983 Convention is one of the regional conventions on recognition in higher education. In 2018, China, Republic of Korea and Mongolia ratified the revised Asia-Pacific Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education (better known as the Tokyo Convention).


According to UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS), today more than 4 million students study outside their home country and it is estimated that by 2020 around 8 million students will be studying abroad. This significant mobility of tertiary students’ calls for a global regulatory framework for the recognition of higher education qualifications and the approval of global convention shall pave the way forward for student mobility in the era of globalization.


The process of the preparation of the Global Convention on Recognition of Qualifications started in 2011 after a feasibility study that underlined the urgent need to respond to the need for improved recognition of foreign qualifications worldwide. A global drafting committee was established in UNESCO in 2016, consisted of experts from all regions that finalized the preliminary draft in June 2017. UNESCO has undertaken extensive consultations with its Member States and then presented revised drafts at two separate intergovernmental meetings in December 2018 and March 2019 for endorsement. The final draft of the global convention has been approved at the 40th general Conference of UNESCO.


The Global Convention was developed with an aim to support: the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, especially as it concerns the quality enhancement of higher education;growth in student mobility;facilitate academic and faculty mobility;promote inclusion and mobility in higher education;improve quality of higher education institutions;enhance international cooperation in higher education.


Being a legal basis for the countries that will ratify the Convention, the Global Convention will be a strong instrument to prevent brain drain, promote student mobility as well as to help facilitate migrants to access higher education in their new home countries. The convention will come into force once ratified by more than 20 Member States of UNESCO. Thus, the Global Convention will greatly contribute to the more inclusive higher education systems in the Member States of UNESCO.


附件:《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》


文章来源:联合国教科文组织.联合国教科文组织第40届大会表决通过《全球高等教育学历学位互认公约》[EB/OL].https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/yl6ZSbRPC_05aRDqBlePnw(2019-11-30)[2019-12-02].